Cardiovascular and Circulatory

Pericardial Effusion


Pericardial Effusion is a collection of fluid in the pericardium. It is usually serous (clear or yellow fluid) or serosanguinous (bloody fluid). Serious accumulation is caused by heart failure, peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernias, uremia, pericardial cysts, or hypoalbuminemia. Serosanguinous accumulation can be caused by cancer, usually hemangiosarcoma, idiopathic disease, trauma, clotting disorders, or left atrial rupture. Rarely pericardial effusion can be caused by infection and consist of pus. Drainage of the fluid is the ideal treatment.


Pulmonary Hypertension


Pulmonary Hypertension is high pressure in the pulmonary artery. In dogs it can be caused by heartworm disease or pulmonary thromboembolism. It can result in right-sided heart disease (cor pulmonale). Signs include difficulty breathing, cyanosis, and exercise intolerance.


Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome


Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease which results in mature neutrophils being unable to migrate from the bone marrow into the blood. Affected pups suffer from chronic infections and failure to thrive. Other symptoms can include stunted growth and a ferret like facial appearance. The disease is common in Border collies.


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